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Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, or ACE inhibitors, are a class of medications widely prescribed for treating hypertension and other cardiac conditions. Since the approval of the first ACE inhibitors in 1981, they have contributed to the reduction in the morbidity and mortality rates of patients with chronic kidney disease, heart failure, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease,…

Heart failure is a chronic, progressive condition that results from a functional or structural heart disorder. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a type of heart failure where the left ventricular ejection fraction is greater than 50%. HFpEF can be caused by a variety of factors, including hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. The condition is often diagnosed in people over the age of 50 and is more common in women than men. Patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) have a left ventricular ejection fraction of less than 40%, and patients with heart failure with mildly reduced ejection fraction (HFmrEF) has a left ventricular ejection fraction of 41% to 49%.

Background Patients and physicians typically have two treatment choices for obstructive coronary artery disease: percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Both treatments have demonstrated efficacy in treating the condition, but there are significant distinctions between them. Coronary artery disease (CAD) is extremely common in heart failure patients, accounting for two-thirds of…