HealthDay News — A high proportion of infants in the Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) are not meeting current vitamin D recommendations, according to a study published online March 11 in the Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior.
Sina Gallo, R.D., Ph.D., from University of Georgia in Athens, and colleagues conducted a secondary analysis to examine associations between infant vitamin D intake and meeting recommendations among a national sample participating in the WIC Infant Toddler Feeding Practices Study-2 (2013 to 2015).
The researchers found that 16 to 36% of infants met vitamin D recommendations during the study period, with 6 to 12% of all participants reporting supplementation across all time points. Very few breastfed infants were supplemented, although most who were (78 to 98%) met the recommendation. At all time points except month 1, breastfed infants were less likely to meet the recommendation than those who were formula fed. Mother/caregiver nativity and parity predicted receiving supplementation, while child sex and mother/caregiver race/ethnicity predicted meeting the recommendation. Infant age, feeding type, and/or their interaction were significant predictors of both receiving supplementation and meeting the recommendation.
“The WIC program is one resource for promoting strategies for increasing the number of American infants meeting [vitamin] D recommendations, but a coordinated approach involving other health care providers is likely needed,” the authors write.