Among patients with hypertension who were on drug therapy, poor blood pressure (BP) control was associated with cigarette smoking. These findings were presented during the American College of Cardiology (ACC) Latin America Conference Virtual 2021, held remotely November 5 to 6, 2021.
Hypertension and smoking are independent cardiovascular risk factors. These predictors are often observed concurrently among patients, and despite well-established evidence, the interaction between these features is multifaceted and not fully understood.
To better inform understanding about the relationship between hypertension and smoking, researchers performed a retrospective assessment of medical records. Patients (N=710) who were on medication for hypertension and were assessed for BP at the office between 2018 and 2019 were evaluated for the relationship between gender and smoking status.
Controlled BP was defined as less than 140/90 mm Hg, S1 as 140-159 and/or 90-99 mm Hg, S2 as 160-179 and/or 100-109 mm Hg, and S3 as greater than 180 and/or greater than 100 mm Hg.
Patients had a mean age of 66.2±10 years and 31% were men.
Stratified by gender, BP control rates were similar among men compared to women (36.1% vs 32.5%) as were rates of S1 (28.6% vs 22.9%), S2 (18.8% vs 24%), and S3 (16.5% vs 20.7%) levels of poor control, respectively.
Fewer men were never smokers than women (62.4% vs 78%; P <.05). For the never smoker individuals, stratification rates did not differ between men compared to women (control: 37.1% vs 34.9%; S1: 25.8% vs 22.3%; S2: 22.6% vs 21.7%; S3: 14.5% vs 21.1%, respectively).
For current smokers, the 4.3% of men and 3.5% of women had differing patterns of BP control, in which fewer men who smoked had BP control (9.1% vs 25.0%), more women had S1 (30.0% vs 43.8%) or S2 (18.2% vs 25.0%) levels of poor BP control and more men had S3 levels of poor control (45.5% vs 6.3%).
This study was limited by not considering other cardiovascular risk factors.
These data indicated there was a complex relationship between current smoking, BP control, and gender among adults who are medicated for hypertension. Additional studies are needed to better assess mechanisms of interaction between hypertension and smoking.
Gonçalves de Sousa M, Laurinavicius AG, Consolim-Colombo F. Cigarette smoking is a marker of poor blood pressure control among adults with hypertension on drug therapy. Presented at: ACC Latin America Conference Virtual 2021.