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Myocarditis: Diagnosis and Etiology

Microbes Implicated in Myocarditis

A review of the microbes implicated in myocarditis, including parvovirus B19, human herpes 6 virus, coxsackie B virus, Corynebacterium diptheriae, Staphylococcus aureus, Borrelia burgdorferi, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and Babesia microti.
•Inflammation related to RA increased patients’ risk of CV morbidity and mortality. •Classic CV risk factors also contribute to CV risk in RA patients. •Often, patients with RA are not screened for CV risk or CV risk is underestimated. •Rheumatologists must ensure their patients’ CV risk is managed appropriately. •Patients should be screened routinely for CV risk and counseled to make lifestyle changes that reduce risk. •Controlling inflammation is essential for reducing CV risk. •CV risk should be considered when prescribing anti-rheumatic treatment. •Synthetic and biologic DMARDs are associated with better CV outcomes than NSAIDs or corticosteroids. •Modifiable CV risk factors such as hypertension or hypercholesterolemia should be managed in line with national guidelines. •Educating patients and PCPs about the increased risk of CVD in RA could improve screening and management. •Educating patients could also improve their ability to recognize CV symptoms and receive lifesaving care.

CVD Management in Rheumatoid Arthritis

Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) and CVD-related mortality compared with the general population. The excess cardiovascular risk in RA is due partly to the inflammatory process, which contributes to coronary abnormalities, and partly due to the presence of traditional risk factors for CVD, such as diabetes…
AF is a complex condition associated with mechanical, electrical, and structural abnormalities of the atria; thus, many factors can predispose to its development.[6] It is most common in patients aged ≥65 years, affecting 9% of this population.[1] It is also more common in women, those of European descent, those with predisposing comorbidities and lifestyle factors, and after surgery.[1] Comorbidities that increase the risk of AF include obesity, cardiovascular conditions (eg, hypertension, coronary artery disease, structural heart disease), and other chronic conditions (eg, hyperthyroidism, asthma). Heavy alcohol use is known to increase risk of developing AF, but a recently published study indicates that regular consumption of even small amounts of alcohol can lead to atrial enlargement and subsequent AF.[7] In addition, several cases of AF after episodes of heavy binge drinking have been reported in people who normally drink little or no alcohol and have no underlying cardiovascular comorbidities.[8]

Atrial Fibrillation: Risks, Comorbidities, and Differential Diagnoses

Atrial fibrillation (AF) results when the atria do not beat normally, preventing normal blood flow into the ventricles. It is the most common type of arrhythmia, affecting an estimated 2.7 to 6.1 million people in the US.[1] By 2030, these numbers are expected to more than double, totaling ~12 million US residents.[2] Although AF management…
8. Blood Pressure Revised Guidelines

Top 10 Cardiology Stories of 2015

References 1. “The Promise of PCSK9 Inhibitors” by Brian Ellis, published 11/9/15. 2. “TAVR: Current and Emerging Approaches” by Batya Swift Yasgur, published 12/14/15, and “TAVR With SAPIEN 3 Valve Demonstrates High 1-Year Survival Rate” by Brian Ellis, published 10/14/15. 3. “Wearable Computers to Improve Percutaneous Revascularization,” published 11/23/15. 4. “S-ICD Therapy Produces Positive Outcomes”…