HealthDay News — In a sample of Black and White adults, depressive symptoms are associated with increased stroke risk, according to a study published online Oct. 6 in Neurology Clinical Practice.
Cassandra D. Ford, Ph.D., R.N., from the University of Alabama in Tuscaloosa, and colleagues examined whether depressive symptomatology was differentially predictive of stroke in Black and White adults, aged 45 years and older. Data were included for 9,529 Black and 14,516 White stroke-free participants. Depressive symptoms were assessed at baseline using the four-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D-4).
During an average follow-up of 9.21 years, the researchers identified 1,262 strokes. After demographic adjustment, participants with CES-D-4 scores of 1 to 3 had increased stroke risk compared with those with no depressive symptoms (hazard ratio, 1.39); after full adjustment, the risk was slightly attenuated (hazard ratio, 1.27). Risk was further increased for participants with CES-D-4 scores of 4 or more after demographic adjustment (hazard ratio, 1.54), with risk attenuated after full adjustment (hazard ratio, 1.25). No evidence of a differential effect by race was observed.
“When a patient has a particular condition, such as diabetes, hypertension, or stroke, that is the focus of diagnosis and care,” Ford said in a statement. “Our study provides support for considering nontraditional risk factors during patient assessment, particularly conducting some mental health screenings.”