Decision Support in Medicine

Resection of Chest Wall Tumors

What the Anesthesiologist Should Know before the Operative Procedure The resection of the chest wall are a range of surgeries that goes from a small incision of less than 5 centimeters to complex reconstructions that include muscle flaps and synthetic mesh. Chest wall tumors are rare, less that 1% of the total of tumors in…

ORIF of ankle fracture

What the Anesthesiologist Should Know before the Operative Procedure The anesthesiologist should know the patient’s medical conditions (including additional injuries for patients who have a high-energy mechanism of injury) as well as the surgical plan. 1. What is the urgency of the surgery? What is the risk of delay in order to obtain additional preoperative…

Congenital Vascular Syndromes

What every physician needs to know about congenital pulmonary vascular syndromes Pulmonary vascular syndromes are most easily divided into pulmonary artery disease and pulmonary vein disease. Arterial diseases include supravalvular pulmonary stenosis, peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis, pulmonary artery sling and pulmonary artery agenesis/hypogenesis. These pulmonary artery diseases may also be related to congenital heart disease…

Leukocytosis

Leukocytosis I. Problem/Condition. Leukocytosis refers to an elevation in the total white blood cell count (WBC). Although each laboratory should establish its own normal range, the upper limit of normal for the WBC tends to be approximately 10-11 x1000 cells/uL, two standard deviations above the mean. The elevation can be due to one specific cell…

Smoking cessation/e-cigarettes

What every physician needs to know: Over the past 50 years, smoking prevalence in the US has decreased from over 40% in the mid 1960s to around 15% in 2015. Much of this is attributable to increased public awareness regarding the effects of smoking; younger generations are much less likely to have smoked than their…

Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis

What every physician needs to know: Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare lung syndrome characterized by an accumulation of surfactant within the alveoli, leading to pulmonary symptoms, increased infection risk, and in severe cases, hypoxic respiratory failure. The most common type is autoimmune PAP, which is associated with autoantibodies to granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)…

Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing

1) General description of procedure, equipment, technique General description: In clinical medicine there are a variety of physiologic measurements that evaluate cardio-respiratory function. Many of these measurements are performed with patients at resting state or while patients carry out simple maneuvers. Prominent examples include spirometry, measurement of lung volumes, pulmonary diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide,…

Lung Cancer Medical Therapy

What every physician needs to know: Lung cancer remains a leading cause of mortality in the United States. Despite advances in screening and early detection, the majority of patients still present with advanced disease. Despite the recent therapeutic discoveries in targeted treatment, and immunotherapy, cures are rare and the major objective of therapy is palliation.…

Fertility preservation

Fertility Preservation Oocyte cryopreservation, Egg freezing, Sperm cryopreservation, Sperm freezing, Ovarian tissue freezing, Ovarian failure, Ovarian insufficiency, Testicular failure 1. What every clinician should know Fertility preservation is the process by which either oocytes (eggs) or sperm undergo an intervention to preserve their use for future attempts at conception. Fertility preservation is considered for patients…

HCW Influenza vaccination programs

HCP Influenza vaccination programs How do the contributions of HCP Influenza Vaccinations impact infection control currently, and how does the vaccination program interact with other aspects of infection control? Influenza causes considerable yearly morbidity and mortality in the United States. Annually, approximately 36,000 deaths and over 200,000 hospitalizations are attributable to influenza infection. There is…

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