Nephrology Hypertension

Diabetic Kidney Disease: General management

Does this patient have diabetic kidney disease? History, signs and symptoms The two chief signs of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) are increased urinary albumin excretion and reduced kidney function, as measured by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) based on serum creatinine. Urine albumin excretion: Higher levels of urine albumin excretion are continuously correlated with severity…

Chronic Kidney Disease: Depression in Chronic Kidney Disease

Does this patient have chronic kidney disease with depression? Depression has a lifetime incidence of 10% in the general population, but is more common among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Up to 1/3 of hemodialysis patients have depressive symptoms consistent with the diagnosis of depression. Depression among patients with chronic kidney disease has been…

Chronic Kidney Disease: Cardiovascular Disease and Dyslipidemia

Does this patient with chronic kidney disease have underlying cardiovascular disease? Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of death among adults in both developed and developing countries. In the United States, more than 92 million adults have at least one type of CVD, which accounted for 30.8% of all deaths in 2014. Every year…

Chronic Kidney Disease: Malnutrition & Inflammation Complex

Does this patient have malnutrition and inflammation complex from chronic kidney disease? A 78-year-old Caucasian male patient with end stage renal disease (ESRD) has been on maintenance hemodialysis three times/week for the past 3 years. He has been using a forearm loop arteriovenous graft (AVG) as dialysis access. During a routine evaluation in the dialysis…

Anemia of Chronic Kidney Disease

What tests should be performed? A complete blood count (CBC): Hb concentration Red blood cell indices (mean corpuscular hemoglobin [MCH], mean corpuscular volume [MCV], mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration [MCHC]), white blood cell count, and differentialContinue Reading Platelet count. Additional tests include: Absolute reticulocyte count to assess the hematological response to the anemia. Measures of iron…

Acute Interstitial Nephritis

Does this patient have acute interstitial nephritis (AIN)? What is the interstitium? the connective tissue surrounding/between the tubules (contains the peritubular capillaries, extracellular matrix and interstitial cells) (Figure 1) Figure 1. Acute interstial nephritis (light microscopy). How do you define interstitial nephritis?Continue Reading Acute kidney injury (AKI) characterized by interstitial inflammation and edema that spares…

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