Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels were negatively correlated with increased total and monosaturated fat consumption, according to results of a study presented at the National Lipid Association Scientific Sessions, from June 2nd through 5th, in Scottsdale, AZ.
Lp(a) is an established risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). The association between dietary fat consumption and ASCVD has not been fully elucidated.
In order to better establish the relationship between dietary fat intake and Lp(a), data for this study were sourced from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Twenty-four-hour dietary recall data were compared with results from a Lp(a) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
The study population comprised 8722 individuals who were mostly women (56.3%) and over a third were White (38.5%).
The change in Lp(a) per 24-hour intake of fat was significantly associated with total fat intake (mean change, -0.05; 95% CI, -0.09 to -0.01 mg/dL; P =.01), total monosaturated fat intake (mean change, -0.10; 95% CI, -0.19 to -0.02 mg/dL; P =.02), C18:1 monosaturated fat intake (mean change, -0.11; 95% CI, -0.20 to -0.02 mg/dL; P =.02), C18:3 polyunsaturated fat intake (mean change, -1.21; 95% CI, -2.11 to -0.32 mg/dL; P =.01), and C14:1 monosaturated fat intake (mean change, -5.4; 95% CI, -10.7 to -0.01 mg/dL; P =.05).
In addition, intake of C16:0 saturated fats was trending toward significance (mean change, -0.18; 95% CI, -0.36 to 0.00 mg/dL; P =.052).
The major limitation of this study was the reliance on 24-hour dietary recall and not prospectively collected dietary information.
This study found that Lp(a) was negatively correlated with high total and monosaturated fat consumption and that the size of the fatty acid chain length may be important. The lack of a significant association between Lp(a) and saturated fat consumption conflicts with previously published data. Additional research is needed to understand how dietary components impact Lp(a) phospholipid content and ASCVD risk.
Patel N, Brandt E. Association Between Dietary Fat Content and Serum Lipoprotein(a) Level. Presented at: National Lipid Association Scientific Sessions; June 2-5, 2022; Scottsdale, AZ. Abstract #18.