THROMBOEMBOLIC DISORDER ASSESSMENT: DVT/PE
Risk Factors

•  Injury to vein

º  Fractures

º  Severe muscle injury

º  Major surgery (abdomen, pelvis, hip, or legs)

•  Reduced blood flow

º  Confinement to bed (eg, due to a medical condition or post-surgery)

º  Limited movement (eg, cast on a leg to help heal an injured bone)

º  Prolonged sitting

º  Paralysis

•  Increased estrogen

º  Oral contraceptive use

º  Hormone replacement therapy

º  Pregnancy (post-partum period)

•  Chronic medical illnesses

º  Heart disease

º  Lung disease

º  Cancer and its treatment

º  Inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis)

•  Other

º  Previous DVT/PE

º  Family history DVT/PE

º  Age (risk increases as age increases)

º  Obesity

º  Smoking

º  Hypertension

º  Central vein catheter

º  Inherited clotting disorders

Prevention

•  Advise patient to move around as soon as possible after limited mobility (eg, post surgery).

•  Use graduated compression stockings or medications to prevent DVT.

•  Warn patient if sitting for long periods of time, such as traveling for >4hrs:

º  Get up and walk around every 2−3hrs.

º  Do leg exercises.

º  Wear loose fitting clothing.

º  Drink plenty of water; avoid alcohol or caffeinated beverages.

•  Initiate therapeutic lifestyle changes: exercise regularly; maintain healthy weight; smoking cessation.

Signs & Symptoms
DVT PE

•  Swelling

•  Pain

•  Tenderness

•  Redness of the skin

•  Difficulty breathing

•  Tachycardia or irregular heartbeat

•  Chest pain or discomfort

•  Anxiety

•  Hemoptysis

•  Hypotension, lightheadedness, or fainting

Treatment
DVT PE

•  Anticoagulants

•  Heparin

•  Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH)

•  Warfarin (Coumadin)

•  Compression stockings

•  Surgery

•  Emergency treatment at hospital

•  Thromobolytics (life-threatening PE)

•  Anticoagulants (prevention)

•  Surgery (high risk)

REFERENCES

Adapted from: www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/dvt/facts.html.

Adapted from: www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/dvt/treatments.html.

For a list of medications used to prevent or treat DVT/PE, visit: www.eMPR.com.

(Rev. 9/2014)