Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, or ACE inhibitors, are a class of medications widely prescribed for treating hypertension and other cardiac conditions. Since the approval of the first ACE inhibitors in 1981, they have contributed to the reduction in the morbidity and mortality rates of patients with chronic kidney disease, heart failure, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease,…

The 6-minute walk test measures the distance an individual can walk over 6 minutes on a hard, flat surface. It is a sub-maximal exercist test used to assess the functional heart and lung capacity of individuals to gauge tolerance to exercise and medical interventions. It can be used to evaluate patients with osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia, heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and who experienced stroke.

Heart failure is a chronic, progressive condition that results from a functional or structural heart disorder. In the United States, the prevalence of heart failure is approximately 6 million, or 1.8% of the US population as of 2021. The prevalence of heart failure in the United States is predicted to increase 46% by 2030. Congestive heart failure is more prevalent in patients who are older.

Nitroprusside Indications In both adults and children with hypertension, nitroprusside infusions are used to reduce blood pressure instantly. This medication is also used to treat acute heart failure and to decrease bleeding following surgery. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) gained FDA approval for treating severe hypertension in 1974. It became widely used as a fast-acting antihypertensive agent…

Heart failure is a chronic, progressive condition that results from a functional or structural heart disorder. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a type of heart failure where the left ventricular ejection fraction is greater than 50%. HFpEF can be caused by a variety of factors, including hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. The condition is often diagnosed in people over the age of 50 and is more common in women than men. Patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) have a left ventricular ejection fraction of less than 40%, and patients with heart failure with mildly reduced ejection fraction (HFmrEF) has a left ventricular ejection fraction of 41% to 49%.

Atrial tachycardia is a type of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PVST), a group of arrhythmias that originate above the atrioventricular junction. Atrial tachycardia can occur after an ablation for the management of atrial fibrillation. Patients presenting with atrial tachycardia may experience palpitations, lightheadedness, chest pain, or shortness of breath.

Heart failure is a chronic, progressive condition that results from a functional or structural heart disorder. Acute heart failure is classified as new onset heart failure (also known as de novo heart failure) or worsening heart failure (also known as acutely decompensated heart failure). Treatment for acute heart failure is primarily symptomatic and centered around decongestive drugs. Acute heart failure is associated with high mortality.

Glycoprotein Iib/IIia inhibitors are a class of drugs that prevent the binding of fibrinogen to platelets. This class of drugs includes abciximab, eptifibatide, and tirofiban and can be used to treat acute coronary syndromes, including unstable angina and non-ST elevation myocardial infarction that may need precutaneous coronary intervention. It is recommended for patients who are unable to tolerate or have an allergy to P2Y12 inhibitors, and for patients undergoing PCI who may have received P2Y12 inhibitors but have a high risk of thrombus/an aspirin allergy.

Angina is chest pain or discomfort due to an imbalance between myocardial oxygen supply and demand. Antianginal drugs correct the ratio between myocardial oxygen supply and demand. Drug classes used in the treatment of angina (antianginal drugs) include beta-blockers (atenolol, metoprolol, propranolol), calcium channel blockers (amlodipine, nifedipine, verapamil, diltiazem), and nitrates (isosorbide).

Atrial fibrillation is a tachyarrhythmia and considered the most common type of cardiac arrhythmia. Atrial fibrillation is the leading cause of stroke and increases the risk of heart failure development. The CHA2DS2-VASc score should be used to stratisfy patient risk of stroke. Patients at high risk of stroke are recommended to initiate anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy.