Lucia Ponor

All articles by Lucia Ponor

Pleural effusions

Pleural Effusions I. Problem/Condition. A pleural effusion is an abnormal accumulation of pleural fluid within the pleural space. The most common cause of pleural effusion is congestive heart failure, which tends to have a better prognosis, compared to less common causes of pleural effusions associated with cirrhosis or malignancy. The pleural space lies between the…


Dyspnea Dyspnea, is defined by the American Thoracic Society as a subjective experience of breathing discomfort. This experience comes from interactions among various physiological, psychological, and environmental factors. Dsypnea is a symptom and it should not be confused with the increased work of breathing, which is a physical sign. In order to be reported as…

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